The cost of biomass power generation is not only the equipment cost, but also the installation cost, maintenance cost and fuel cost, etc.
1.The total installed costs of biomass power generation technologies varies significantly by technology and country. The total installed costs of stoker boilers was between USD 1 880 and USD 4 260/kW in 2010, while those of circulating fluidised bed boilers were between USD 2170 and USD 4500/kW. Anaerobic digester power systems had capital costs between USD 2 570 and USD 6 100/kW. Gasification technologies, including fixed bed and fluidised bed solutions, had total installed capital costs of between USD 2 140 and USD 5700/kW. Co-firing biomass at low-levels in existing thermal plants typically requires additional investments of USD 400 to USD 600/kW. Using landfill gas for power generation has capital costs of between USD 1920 and USD 2440/kW.
2.Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs can make a significant contribution to the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) and typically account for between 9% and 20% of the LCOE for biomass power plants. It can be lower than this in the case co-firing and greater for plants with extensive fuel preparation, handling and conversion needs. Fixed O&M costs range from 2% of installed costs per year to 7% for most biomass technologies, with variable O&M costs of around USD 0.005/kWh. Landfill gas systems have much higher fixed O&M costs, which can be between 10% and 20% of initial capital costs per year.
3.Secure, long-term supplies of low-cost, sustainably sourced feedstocks are critical to the economics of biomass power plants. Feedstock costs can be zero for wastes which would otherwise have disposal costs or that are produced onsite at an industrial installation (e.g. black liquor at pulp and paper mills or bagasse at sugar mills). Feedstock costs may be modest where agricultural residues can be collected and transported over short distances. However, feedstock costs can be high where significant transport distances are involved due to the low energy density of biomass (e.g. the trade in wood chips and pellets).
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