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How Does Biomass Power Plant Work

2018-03-16 14:20:31

In a direct combustion system, biomass is burned in a combustor or furnace to generate hot gas, which is fed into a boiler to generate steam, which is expanded through a steam turbine or steam engine to produce mechanical or electrical energy.

How Does Biomass Power Plant Work

The biomass first goes into storage, then preparation and processing, and on to simultaneously create ash and exhaust. From there, the biomass becomes boiler fuel that produces steam to operate a steam turbine and generator to make electricity.

The two principal types of chip-fired direct combustion systems are stationary- and traveling-grate combustors, otherwise known as fixed-bed stokers and atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors.

Fixed-Bed Systems

There are various configurations of fixed-bed systems, but the common characteristic is that fuel is delivered in some manner onto a grate where it reacts with oxygen in the air. This is an exothermic reaction that produces very hot gases and generates steam in the heat exchanger section of the boiler.

Fluidized-bed systems

In either a circulating fluidized-bed or bubbling fluidized-bed system, the biomass is burned in a hot bed of suspended, incombustible particles, such as sand. Compared to grate combustors, fluidized-bed systems generally produce more complete carbon conversion, resulting in reduced emissions and improved system efficiency. In addition, fluidized-bed boilers can use a wider range of feedstocks. Furthermore, fluidized-bed systems have a higher parasitic electric load than fixed-bed systems due to increased fan power requirements.

The efficiency of a direct combustion or biomass gasification system is influenced by a number of factors, including biomass moisture content, combustion air distribution and amounts (excess air), operating temperature and pressure, and flue gas (exhaust).

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